Thursday, 11 June 2015

Mini Miro: modern dance, tuff tables and fuzzy felt


Today we have a guest post on exploring the artist Miro from my wonderful friend, homeschooling supermum, parent of four, maths tutor and producer of one of Culturebaby's most kindred little souls...

Back in April, Culturebaby was busy and couldn't make the annual Family Weekend at Sadler's Wells Theatre, so Museum Mummy very kindly offered the tickets to us in return for a guest blog on the event. The main attraction of the weekend was the dance show, Constelaciones (Constellations), inspired by the collection of pieces by Spanish painter, Joan Miro, and performed by dance troupe, Arcaladanza. On Easter Saturday, my husband and I got on the train with two of our daughters, aged 2 and a half and 2 months respectively. Baby was safely stowed in the sling and CultureBuddy was excited to watch the trains rushing by as we ventured into the Big Smoke for what promised to be a colourful dance extravaganza, offering delight in equal measure to children and adults. 

On arrival, we discovered an array of imaginative activities arranged for families in the atrium above the main foyer. Baby snoozed with Daddy, while CultureBuddy and I explored…..we found a giant fuzzy felt wall and all the materials you could desire for making your own fuzzy felt pictures. After we constructed a blue-haired beauty, complete with red dress, we went on to draw a wish for a wish balloon to be stuck on a giant cloud, which over the course of the afternoon became covered with blue-white bubbles of aspiration. CultureBuddy's wish was instantly granted, much to her gratification, as she had wished for her balloon to join the cloud. 

Last, but not least, CultureBuddy donned an artist's shirt and hat and set to work with her paintbrush using a palette of movements to control a dancer. Each mini-artist was given three lolly sticks, marked 'low', 'smooth' and 'high' and placed them on the colours on the palette, which in turn denoted different movements for the dancer, including 'slide', 'throw' and, my personal favourite, 'gloopy'. Using her paintbrush to point at the different colours on the palette, CultureBuddy watched with glee as the dancer followed her commands.

At last, it was time for the main feature - the show. We entered the darkened theatre and took our seats. Slowly, the audience hushed and the curtains rose. White smoke began to gently fill the stage. Two dancers entered, barely visible in the dark, each holding a flashlight, throwing beams of light into the house via the medium of the smoke. They approached an array of what looked like small black tubs on rails and held their torch over each individual tub. As they did so, the tubs became illuminated, one at a time. The dancers were pouring light from their torches into the stage lighting, which had been lowered down onto the floor for them! The optical illusion was enchanting and younger members of the audience would have been forgiven for believing that the laws of physics had changed and luminescence could flow like water. 



So began the magic of the show. It was made up of a number of short pieces, all light hearted and beautifully playful, building on the iconic shapes and colours of Miro's paintings. Dancers competed with over-sized blue balls, which they sat on, rolled and chased each other with. Every so often, a man on a bicycle rode across the stage, with brilliant small lights suddenly appearing in his hands. The costumes were often an integral part of the show and used to full effect: at one point, the dancers lay inside hollow tubes of black fabric, creating the Miro's famous black lines and moving them to music; artists strode on wearing huge bulbous suits, which they unzipped to release black bean bags, one at a time and then in a flurry, finally arranging them in rows, stepping stone style across the stage. CultureBuddy's favourite was a wonderful dress which extended in a V-shape above the dancer's head. It was illuminated with a multitude of twinkling stars and changed colour as the dancer rotated on the spot. The whole show was highly enjoyable and charmed all of us, excepting always baby, who fed and then slept throughout the show.

At home, I wanted to build on the experience of the show and also involve my two older children: we are a home educating family and as we grow, I am finding that enlisting the older children in helping to create something for their younger sibling is a fun way of us learning all together. We looked at photos of Miro's Constellation paintings online and the children found two videos on you-tube for CultureBuddy, bringing Miro's work to life through animation. The children then helped me to assemble a Miro themed tuff table, using colourful plastic shapes and connecting them together with ready-mixed paint, straight from the bottle. Culturebuddy experimented with squirting copious amounts of paint onto the table herself and using paint scrapers to make her own patterns and colours. Under the direction of her siblings, she was able to sort the plastic shapes into separate pots for triangles, circles and squares. 

 
Finally, all the children had a go at re-producing one of Miro's works with the book, Sticker Art Shapes: Joan Miro, which is ideal for young children. On one side, there is a picture of an original Miro masterpiece and on the opposite page, a copy with several elements missing, which the child finds on their sticker sheet and puts into the correct position.



We had a lot of fun before, during and after the show, and this blog comes with a big thank you to CultureBaby for allowing us along for the ride.

Sunday, 24 May 2015

Baby Book Club: Around the World



On a sunny day a few weeks ago, when we had a group of Culturebaby's older friends visiting, I finally got round to setting up an outdoor tactile geography activity for them to explore together. I've been planning this one ever since I found a lovely laminated cloth map amongst the rolls of fabric in a haberdasher's shop and discovered that Safari Toobs do a couple of brilliant sets of landmark models. It was really satisfying to watch the children work together to discover where the buildings and historic landmarks should be situated and then cluster them together in the correct locations on the map. We even cracked open the fossils and animals to add them into the mix and played games; encouraging the children to stand in warm spots, cold climates and locate oceans and mountains. 
Culturebaby is beginning to understand the concept of a map and has started to sketch out mazes and routes in a spatial way. This sort of activity seemed to work well for her to explore basic geographical ideas. She clearly enjoyed it enough that when another friend visited later in the day, she got the activity back out for him to see too. She's also a big fan of miniature world play and these models have also really helped her to become familiar with the names and construction of iconic buildings and we also used the map to talk about family members who are currently elsewhere in the world.
Since I've had children, I've also become more aware of not only the authors and illustrators but also the publishers of the books we read and love. Finding a great new publisher is like discovering the taste for a new cuisine which - Boom! - becomes an instant favourite and you want to savour more on the menu. We've recently been treated to a fabulous pair: Gecko Press and Minedition - each of which specialise in bringing books from around the world, published in other languages and countries, to an English speaking audience in the UK. It feels like such a treat to be able to experience literature that children elsewhere are growing up with daily, and being privy to the iconic images of their childhoods - from Switzerland and Italy, to New Zealand and Hong Kong - that otherwise we might never have the chance to do. Ultimately I hope to use these (already much thumbed) titles to talk about their places of origin too.

Culturetot, as any followers of our #5litaday bedtime selections will know, is a very big fan of her pair of board books from Minedition: Squares by Japanese author and illustrator Yusuke Yonezu and Peekaboo by Italian artist Giuliano Ferri. Squares is a stunningly crafted die-cut book in bold colours. It introduces the concept of shape and explores squares and rectangles in everyday life through surprise transformations of a simple form to an object on every page. Four squares become a window, two rectangles become candles... or pencils. It's a beautiful design. The sort of thing you'd find in the Tate bookshop.

Likewise, Ferri's Peekaboo is an exquisitely illustrated and predominantly wordless board book for the youngest child. Culturetot loves the game of peekaboo and was delighted to discover a book with a whole host of cheeky little animals, eyes covered ready to play her favoured game. With flaps as paws, used to uncover faces throughout and a surprise mirror at the coda, this book has been selected most days and it certainly appears to have a good deal of mileage left. It is also a great book for Culturebaby to 'read' to her sister. I wasn't surprised to discover that author Ferri works with young people with disabilities, using animation and comic theatre as therapy.

Another original title which arrived this week, and which both girls have enjoyed in equal measure, is the quirky Help! The Wolf is Coming! from French pair Ramadier and Bourgeau. Culturebaby adores anything smacking of the fairytale; she loves the simple tales of Red Riding Hood and chums and she relishes any opportunity to be scared by a sly old fox or a hungry wolf - so long as they are firmly put in their place by the end. This interesting title is an interactive book in which a wolf is in hot pursuit and the reader needs to follow the instructions (tip the book, shake, quick turn the page...) to lose the sinister little chap. Combining play and the joint pleasure of enjoying a book with others, this title has certainly landed in the 'again, again!' category for both girls.

Finally, two titles for slightly older readers. Firstly brand new title The Paradise Bird.  From Swiss author and illustrator Marcus Pfister, comes a sweet story celebrating the joy in life and the delight that can come when we open our minds to a colourful influence from outside our own experience. The ravens are bored. Not much happens and they struggle to feel motivated. Then into their monochrome world crashes a comedian; a technicolour paradise bird, who makes them laugh, dance, sing and embrace their own croaky language. It's rather a heartwarming idea, and a useful lesson in being open minded and learning from those who may seem different to us.

Then from Austrian author Heinz Janisch is a really unusual offering. Janisch has been awarded, amongst others, the Austrian State Prize for Poetry, and here he teams up with celebrated German illustrator Wolf Erlbruch to produce a volume of 21 (extremely) short stories The King and the Sea. Culturebaby and I read it together and she certainly enjoyed some of the extracts, but I can see why this picture book is aimed at 8+. Its messages are deep and profound. It could easily benefit an adult audience just as much as the older child. In each tiny tale, the king attempts to rule over an element of nature and is unable to overcome each with their powerful diversity. The rain continues to fall, the clouds to move, and the sea fails to heed the orders of a Canute-like crown-bearing human. This little king sees his limits and learns from nature - from the trees to the sky. He understands that the trumpet must be used not ordered to deliver its sound and the pencil must be handled to produce great value. It's an original book that is rather reminiscent of The Little Prince. One to ponder and re-read.

Disclaimer: The books mentioned and the Safari Toobs were sent to us, on request, for review purposes. The map was our own purchase. Similar material can be found in fabric shops and market stalls. All the titles are available for purchase in the UK.

Monday, 11 May 2015

Little Miss Austen

Culturebaby is deeply enamoured of 'big' dresses. The more brightly coloured, floral and impractical the better. I've decided to fly the white flag over this potential war and over the winter I purchased a range of thermal vests, confiscated the most ridiculous summer attire and handed over the keys to the kingdom of Wardrobe. She'll only be three for the blink of an eye and, who knows, she may be the next Westwood. I shall not stifle the frill. 

Unsurprisingly, Culturebaby saw a kindred clan in the giggle of Bennet sisters and happily plunged headlong into their world earlier than I might have expected. Thanks goes of course to the ingenious Babylit series, of which the Pride and Prejudice playset and counting primer is a favourite. We also received a new quirky satire on the popular classic Goodnight Moon which developed the story further than its basic characters and components featured in the Babylit series.
Goodnight Mr. Darcy Goodnight Mr Darcy is an endearing little rhyme, with words and images adapted from the original but featuring a night at the Netherfield Ball, with its love, laughter, music and awkward family faux pas. Whilst purists may think it a tad silly, this little volume in no way takes itself seriously and we really love it. In the last couple of weeks, this pair of titles have been requested rather a lot, so I decided it was high time for a spot of Regency time travel. We listened to the beautiful sound track of the latest film of Pride and Prejudice, danced to the jolly rhythms of the Meryton Ball (hundreds of times and counting), acted out the story with the Babylit playset and watched the opening scenes from the film.

We also looked at the sorts of dresses Lizzie and Jane might have worn in the early 19th Century in our sumptuous Taschen Fashion encyclopaedia and we used the photographs as inspiration to create a few simple costumes for my vintage dolls using material, lace and ribbon off-cuts. Even Pooh Bear and his pal Bobo, have been spotted sporting high waistlines.


Taking the opportunity to spend some quality time with my 3 year old Culturebaby alone, we spent a glorious 'big girl' sunny day exploring the fabulous fashion and jewellery collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum, hunting out Georgian attire and reclining by their child-friendly outdoor pool (one of London's best kept sunny day secret retreats). 


We've also been constructing our own little dress museum at home, using the gorgeous fold out title from Big Picture Press Shirts, Skirts and Shoes illustrated by Sanna Mander. Whilst this volume only covers the last 100 years or so, it is a work of art; folding out to over two metres and forming the perfect museum backdrop. We've spent some extremely happy creative sessions discussing our favourite designs and again emulating these styles for dolls with simple (no sew) off-cuts of fabric, ribbons and a few items I've had since I was a child. We've explored the Edwardian, the '20s and the '50s and 60's. Simple and so much fun...

 
Finally, we've sought out the Georgians on their own turf with a couple of historic house trips. Dunham Massey is a beautiful property near Manchester with some of the best gardens ever for exploring. At present it is set up as a World War One hospital (recalling its use a century ago) and is worth a trip to experience the 'ghost' nurses who get on with their care of wounded soldiers, unaffected by their 21st Century observers. We also visited the Pemberley of BBC drama fame; Lyme Park. Whilst there is no longer a larger than life statue of Colin Firth hauling himself out of the garden pond, there is a gorgeous nursery in which children are able to explore and play with beautiful old toys, a school room complete with activities, and a stage with a range of dressing-up costumes for all the family. We brought home one of Usborne's brilliant sticker dolly dressing books: Fashion Long Ago, and we've been clothing a millennia of characters ever since. I hadn't realised exploring a classic with such young children through the medium of fashion history and music could be so rewarding and ultimately accessible for them. We will certainly do more of this in the future.


Disclaimer: We received copies of Baby Lit's Pride and Prejudice Playset and Goodnight Mr Darcy, and Big Picture Press' Skirts, Shirts and Shoes for review purposes. All other materials are our own.

Thursday, 9 April 2015

Celebrating Science


To celebrate National Science Week (now rather tardily at publication) I thought I'd write about one of our favourite family places; a second home, giant playground and temple to progress, crouching like an introverted boffin behind the imposing grandeur of the Natural History Museum. Inside The Science Museum, of course, is an Aladdin's cave for children of all ages (0-90) and is one of the most pre-school friendly museums around. At present we have the enviable means to go mid-week in term time and it is a privilege we will mourn wholeheartedly with the advent of schooldays, but for now it is our oyster; and we discover new pearls with every visit.

Whilst the entire museum is a source of wonder, and can fill a full day or more with its myriad of exhibits, I wanted to share our favourite three unmissable interactive spots for toddlers and young children. We always meander through a host of other sections on our tour of these interactive playgrounds - the iconic ground floor galleries being particular favourites.


1. Launchpad - Located on the third floor, this area packed with over 50 interactive exhibits is the go-to place for all children. Hosting informative and engaging demonstrations nearby such as the Rocket Show, it would be possible to while away an entire visit here alone. Whilst it caters to 8-16 year olds, both my girls already adore this utterly enthrawling pair of rooms. On a quiet day they get a great chance to explore and test the properties of materials, engage in experiments with shadows, smoke, gravity, sound, chemicals, density, energy and other early physics and chemistry concepts. Culturetot has particularly enjoyed in recent months the water walls, balls propelled by air and experiments with refracted light. Culturebaby has been very taken with the shadow room, experiments with dry ice, the rockets, and the 'Big Machine' - operated by children and a host of pulleys and other mechanisms. I love this area - you can see little scientists in the making, working together with peers to build arches, operate machinery and emerging utterly inspired.
 
2. The Garden - Somewhat hidden in the basement, the Garden (deceptively named indoor space) is designed for children aged 3 to 6 and is our favourite London playground. Both girls find so much to interest them in this brilliantly designed cave of sensory exploration. To the right is an area designed for experimentation with sound, mirrors and textures. The walls are clad in a range of touchy-feely sensory materials, coupled with sound effects and interesting use of light. It is as perfect for babies as any other miniature explorer. To the left is a large area for waterplay with a huge set of tanks and water features, containing boats, wheels and bridges in a set of stepped riverways. This one feature can hold the attention of a child happily for unprecedented periods and allows a welcome parental breather. I've seen a good few amusing scraps and melodramatic episodes where a child has become too attached to one particular vessel as it wends its way through a host of others and past many miniature paws, but (on occasions when said drama isn't created by your brood) this rather adds to the merriment. The space also features giant construction bricks, highly prized wheel barrows, and a fantastic construction where children are forced to work together to fill a bucket with beanbags, raise it with a rope, transport said items and deposit down a chute. And repeat ad infinitum. A few of the less seasoned parental visitors enthusiastically haul buckets around at the behest of their miniature dictators. Others relax happily against the wall and survey the chaos in peace. It is a wonderful place and we always stop in after our multiple laps round the Dinosaur room next door.
 


3. The Pattern Pod - Reclining at the back of the ground floor, it is easy to miss this gem. Apparently created for the age 5-8 bracket, this hands-on area also appeals to younger visitors. From a few months old Culturetot loved wading through the touch-sensitive projected pool of fish on the floor, both girls now adore dancing in the disco room, crawling along the footprint tracks and exploring patterns and textures on display. The slightly older children can grow their own seeds and create projected kaleido-patterns on the walls. This area is often quite peaceful, and after the energy of the Launchpad, it is a great place to cultivate calm before the journey home.
 
 

 Design Line: Planes, Trains, and AutomobilesOn days when we can't make it into London but the Culturebabies fancy a visit, we've taken to creating our own museum of choice at home and taking toys for a trip. This week, inspired by the arrival of a stunning new book arrival Planes, Trains and Automobiles: A Visual History of Modern Transport by Mike Lemanski (which is actually a huge fold-out timeline) we created our own science museum transport galleries at home using some of our favourite resources - Safari Toobs. The Disney Princesses, led by bookworm Belle, trooped round the exhibits - each identifying their favourite train or plane - and watched with delight our miniature moving railway exhibit (a fab present from CultureUncle). Culturebaby played happily with it all afternoon, later incorporating a cafe and house with sickbed for a poorly Beast. Already impressed by her consternation last week, as she marched into the room and declared that Gaston was a bad man as he didn't want Belle to read, I was furthermore delighted to observe her send several of the princesses off to work as museum staff. No more of this waiting around in towers to be rescued; Carpe Diem girls!

We've been rather lucky recently to receive some really interesting titles to review on science (excluding natural history here) for children, perfect complements to already treasured titles in our collection.
1. For Baby - Back when I was crawling around, somewhere along the border between Yorkshire and Lancashire (quite literally - my parents slept in a different county to me), my mum and dad created a whole range of interesting feely boards designed to introduce me to a range of textures, temperatures and materials and their associated descriptions. This was rather original and inspired at the time. With some regret that they didn't go on to patent materials, but delight at the discovery that I don't have to slave away with tools and a gluegun in their footsteps, I was relieved to learn that Usborne (and a range of other great publishers) have done the whole project for me. There is a brilliant selection of tactile and interactive titles out there for children - which are of course their first introduction through books to cause and effect, materials and other scientific concepts - and few better than a recent title by Usborne Baby's First Touchy Feely Musical Playbook. This boardbook has it all, and Culturetot adores it. With buttons producing sounds, finger trails using cut-outs and textures, holes for tiny fingers to explore, flaps, fabrics and other materials, this book encapsulates many of the principles of The Science Museum's Garden in a bright and accesssible volume.

2. For pre-schoolers we have two lovely stories about the vastness of the Universe. First, Usborne's simple and endearing picture book How High is the Sky? by Anna Milbourne and Serena Riglietti is about a young penguin who, like many toddlers, is brimming with big questions about this huge and interesting world. He sets off on an experimental journey to discover just how high the sky really is. Catching a ride with an albatross, a hot air balloon and eventually a rocket, he comes to see that the sky just goes on and on. It struck me as much more than a story but a good introduction to the unexpected rewards of questioning, experimenting and discovery.

Secondly, a quirky volume dropped through our letter-box yesterday. When Dad Showed Me the Universe by Ulf Stark and illustrated by Eva Eriksson. Originally a popular Swedish classic, this English volume will be published in April by Gecko press (which specialises in English versions of curiously good books they discover from around the world). Culturebaby and I read it together this evening and she really liked it. Over the last couple of nights we have been reading the myth of Pegasus so she is already interested in the idea of a constellation and here we have an interesting story about a father who really wants to show his son the Universe. Keen to make it a special occasion and daring adventure, the surprise is kept as such until all streetlights are left behind and in the wilderness the Dad lifts up his child to reveal to true magnificence of the night sky. Peppered with scientific facts which betray the passion of the father for science, and humorous interludes, this story is rather unusual. On the face of it, Culturebaby took it at face value - a great adventure with a father and a comic ending. But it is also rather more interesting for older readers too. The father with his head in the clouds fails to see the mess on the ground he wades into; he worries that a great adventure has been ruined because it contains such a moment. The delight and message, of course, is that even if the best made plans are imperfect for the child, both the intimacy and wonder of sharing a parent's passions are utterly unforgettable.

What Are Clouds Made of?3. One of my new favourite books is the recently published 365 Science Activities from Usborne by Minna Lacey. Full of really simple ideas for experiments that can be done with even the youngest children at home, succinct explanations and a wide range of themes, I suspect this will be one of those volumes that I buy for everyone as presents. This is the sort of book that you can dip into for inspiration and do a quick science session with household materials. From creating foaming fizz and making rain to creating catapults and invisible ink, this book is a goldmine of quick and easy experiments for little ones. And for children who are full of questions about the world around them, I'd recommend What Are Clouds Made Of? by Geraldine Taylor. This really accessible little lift-the-flap book suits my 3 year old and her questions perfectly. I've owned it a while, but it has come into its own in recent weeks. Taking simple childlike questions, to which parents have forgotten many of the answers, it answers why do birds sing and flowers smell, can trees breathe, why the sky is blue and why we can't drink sea water. The most surprising element perhaps, is that Culturebaby seems to remember the answers very well when the information is presented in this simple and tactile format.


Rebel 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. For older children I've found a few goodies in our collection waiting for the future, or great for parental revision. Firstly, we were sent a pair of little science books entitled Fact or Fib? A Challenging Game of True or False (1&2) by Kathy Furgang. The premise is simple and follows the popular ice-breaker game: each page contains two science facts and one lie. The reader must decide then read about the truth on the following page. I was amused to see this title being fished off the shelf and appreciated by adults at a party. I also rather like a recent copy we were sent of Rebel Science by Dan Green and David Lytelton. With cartoon-like illustrations and divided into themes such as genetics, anatomy, the story of the elements, microbes, the atom, the earth and so on, this quirky book aims to show that any preconceptions that science is dull (and scientists duller) are totally ill founded. Science is full of rebels who took risks, made huge mistakes and performed challenging experiments to push the boundaries of science. Dwelling on the characters as well as their discoveries, this will be a great book for when the girls are older. Finally, liberated from a vast pile of titles acquired by my champion charity shopping mother, was another quirky volume How Nearly Everything Was Invented by the Brainwaves. DK Publishing is so good at visual guides and this is no exception with its pages bursting full of inventions and ideas that changed the world (and some of the flops).



5. Finally, one of the most stunning and intriguing reference books I have ever seen arrived for review from Taschen just in time for Christmas. Completely unique and with information ranging from the environment, technology, economics and society, to culture, Understanding the World. The Atlas of Infographics by Sandra Rendgen and Julius Weidemann is a creative and completely beautiful look at some of the most exciting, creative and inspiring ways of explaining the world in information graphics. I've never seen anything like it and it is perfect for propping up at the table and talking about. It is one of those books you can paw through for hours and not really notice the time pass by. It was so special I wrapped it up for Culturedad for Christmas. We'll treasure this one.

Disclaimer: We were kindly sent review copies of a number of the books mentioned above. Others were from our own collection. I only review books I like and as always all opinions are my own.


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